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Lemon
Lemons
Lemons
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. × limon
Citrus × limon
( L.) Burm.f.
The lemon, Citrus × limon, is a citrus tree, a hybrid of cultivated origin. The fruit are cultivated primarily for their juice, though the pulp and rind (zest) are also used, primarily in cooking or mixing. Lemon juice is about 5% citric acid, which gives lemons a sour taste; its pH is 2.3, so because of its acidity, lemon juice is commonly used in chemistry experiments.

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Contents

Description
Cultivation
Lemon History
In food
Experiment
Lemon Myrtle
Gallery



Description - Contents

A lemon tree can grow to 6 m (20 ft) but is usually smaller. The branches are thorny, and form an open crown. The leaves are green, shiny and elliptical-acuminate. Flowers are white on the outside with a violet streaked interior. On a lemon tree, flowers and ripe fruits can be found at the same time.There are several varieties of lemon including Eureka, Lisbon and the Meyer Lemon, which is thought to be a hybrid.


Cultivation - Contents

Lemons grow in tropical and sub–tropical climates and can not withstand frosts and very cold temperatures. Their favored temperature is between 15–30°C. They thrive in fertile soils and lots of sunlight. Propagation is often by grafting as the stock is vulnerable to cankers and dry rot.Lemons are grown comercially in Spain, Portugal and other Mediterranean countries and also in the United States. They can be grown as plants in the garden as well as in containers if they are pruned to keep a small form.


Lemon History - Contents

The first description of the lemon, which had been introduced to the Arab world from India two centuries earlier, is found in Arabic writings from the 12th century. The origin of the name lemon is through Persian (لیمو Limu), from the Sanskrit nimbuka. They were cultivated in Genoa in the mid-fifteenth century, and appeared in the Azores in 1494. More recent research has identified lemons in the ruins of Pompeii. Lemons were once used by the British Royal navy to combat scurvy, as they provided a large amount of vitamin C. The Royal Navy originally thought lemons were overripe limes which they resemble and their sailors became known as limeys, not lemonies.


In food - Contents

Both lemons and limes are regularly served as lemonade (natural lemon juice with water and sugar) or limeade, its equivalent, or as a garnish for drinks such as iced tea or a soft drink, with a slice either inside or on the rim of the glass. Only lemons, however, are used in the Italian liqueur Limoncello. A wedge of lemon is also often used to add flavor to water.Lemon juice is typically squeezed onto fish dishes in restaurants in the United Kingdom and other countries; the acidic juice neutralizes the taste of amines in fish.Lemon juice is also sprinkled on cut fruit, such as apples, to prevent oxidation which would otherwise rapidly darken the fruit, making it less appetizing. Some people like to eat lemons as fruit (however, water should be consumed afterwards, to wash the citric acid and sugar from the teeth, which might otherwise promote tooth decay). It can be used on its own or with oranges to make marmalade.Lemon juice contains approximately 500 milligrams of vitamin C and 50 grams of citric acid per litre.


Experiment - Contents

A common school experiment involving lemons is to attach electrodes and use them as a battery to power a light. The electricity generated may also be used to power a motor to move the lemons (on wheels) like a car or truck. These experiments also work with other fruit and with potatoes.


Lemon Myrtle - Contents

In recent times, the Australian bush food Lemon Myrtle has become a popular alternative to lemons. The crushed and dried leaves and edible essential oils have a strong, sweet lemon taste, but contain no citric acid. Lemon Myrtle is popular in foods that curdle with lemon juice (such as cheesecakes and ice-cream).


Gallery - Contents

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