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Монгол Улс
Mongol Uls
Flag of Mongolia Coat of arms of Mongolia
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Dayar Mongol
Anthem: National Anthem of Mongolia
Location of Mongolia
Capital Ulaanbaatar
47°55′ N 106°53′ E
Largest city Ulaanbaatar
Official language(s) Mongolian
Prime minister
Parliamentary democracy
Nambaryn Enkhbayar
Miyeegombyn Enkhbold
- Declared
July 11, 1921
• Total

• Water (%)

1,564,116 km² ( 18th)
{{{areami²}}} mi²

• 2004 est.
• 2000 census

• Density

2,791,272 ( 134th)

1.8/km² ( 193rd)
• Total
• Per capita
2005 estimate
.230 billion ( 151st)
,046 ( 146th)
HDI ( 2003) 0.679 ( 114th) – medium
Currency Tugrug ( MNT)
Time zone
• Summer ( DST)
( UTC+7)
( UTC+8)
Internet TLD .mn
Calling code +976
Mongolia ( Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked Central Asian country, bordered by Russia to the north and the People's Republic of China to the south.It was the center of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, but was ruled by the Manchu Qing dynasty from the end of the 18th century until an independent government was formed with Soviet assistance in 1921. Following the fall of the Soviet Union, Mongolia adopted electoral politics. The 18th largest country in the world by area, Mongolia has very little arable land: much of its area is grassland, with mountains in the north and west and the Gobi Desert in the south. A little over 30 percent of the population are nomadic or semi-nomadic Tibetan Buddhists of the Mongol ethnicity. Over fifty per cent of the population reside in the capital city Ulaanbaatar.

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History - Contents

Mongolia was called the Khunnu Empire in 209 BCE. Modun Shanyu (Modun King) was the king of the country at that time, and he made the first of Mongolia's great conquests. The Khunnu Empire was the biggest enemy of its southern neighbour, China, and the Chinese built a great wall to protect themselves from the Khuns, whom Chinese considered barbarians.Later on, after the Khunnu empire had weakened, Mongolia was divided into tribes. Before the 13th century CE, the land of Mongolia was occupied by various nomadic tribes and short-lived Mongol confederacies.In the late 12th century CE, a minor warlord named Temujin, convinced that he possessed the Mandate of Heaven, began a long struggle to unite the Mongol tribes. In 1206, in a ceremonious setting, Temujin was crowned the Chingis Khaan ( Genghis Khan), and the nation of Mongolia took its current shape. In the 13th century, Mongolia was the center of the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous land empire in world history.After more than a century of power, the Mongol Empire disintegrated, and Mongols fell into a state of internal feuds. During this time, they adopted a variant of Buddhism -- Lamaism. The Manchu conquered Inner Mongolia in 1636 and Outer Mongolia in 1691. Under more than 200 years of Manchu-Chinese oppression, Mongols suffered tremendous losses to their demographics and mentality.Mongolia declared independence in 1911, but only Outer Mongolia gained partial independence. After the October Revolution in Russia, Chinese troops led by Hsü Shu-Cheng re-occupied Outer Mongolia in 1919, but were caught in the middle when White and Red Russian armies extended the Russian Civil War into (Outer) Mongolian territory, and were driven out in 1921. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed.The Mongolian People's Republic was aligned closely with the Soviet Union. Politicians who demanded a more capitalist course and who dissented against collective prosperity, like Dogsomyn Bodoo or Horloogiyn Dandzan, quickly became unpopular. In 1928, Horloogiyn Choybalsan rose to power. Under his administration, forced but productive collectivisation, and the destruction of Lamaist monasteries in 1937 left more than 10,000 insurgent lamas dead.During the Soviet-Japanese Border War, the USSR defended Mongolia against Japan during the Battle of Halhin Gol. Mongolian forces also took part in the Soviet offensive against Japanese forces in Inner Mongolia in August 1945 (see Operation August Storm). The threat of Mongolian forces seizing parts of Inner Mongolia induced the Republic of China to recognize Outer Mongolia's independence, provided that a referendum was held. The referendum took place on October 20, 1945, with, according to official numbers, 100% of the electorate voting for independence. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, both countries recognized each other on October 6, 1949.After Choybalsan died in Moscow on January 26, 1952, Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal took power. In 1956 and again in 1962, Choybalsan's ' personality cult' was condemned. Mongolia continued to closely align itself with the Soviet Union, especially after the Sino-Soviet split of the late 1950s. While Tsedenbal visited Moscow in August 1984, being very ill, the parliament announced his retirement and replaced him with Jambyn Batmonh.In 1990, the Communist Party relinquished control over the government, without a single bullet being fired. A new constitution was prepared in 1992 that abolished the People's Republic and created a democratic state.

Politics - Contents

Until June 27, 2004, the predominant party in Mongolia was the ex-communist party Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP, which was formed by Mongolia's communist leaders after the end of the Cold War. The main opposition party was the Democratic Party or DP, which controlled a governing coalition from 1996 to 2000.From 2000 to 2004 MPRP was back in power, but results of the 2004 elections required the establishing of the first ever coalition government in Mongolia between the MPRP and MDC (Motherland Democratic Coalition).Mongolia is a parliamentary country where president has a symbolic role and the government is the executive power. The legislative power State Great Khural, has one chamber with 76 seats and is chaired by the speaker of the house.On January 14, 2006, the parliament's 39 members mostly MPRP members including 4 Democratic Party member Mendsaikhan Enkhsaikhan, Narantsatsralt, Sonompil, J.Batkhuyag illegally overthrew democrat Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj's grand coalition government violating Mongolian Constitution as it exceeded its power. This was based on MPRP Directing Board's decision which violates its three agreements with Democratic Party. Movements and Mongolians have still been making strong protests against MPRP and the Parliament's decision to overthrow Elbegdorj's Government.

Provinces - Contents

Main article: Provinces of Mongolia
Mongolia is split in to 21 provinces (aymguud; sing. aimag or aymag) and 1 municipality (hot) with provincial status.
Map of Mongolia
Map of Mongolia
  • Arhangay
  • Bayan-Ölgiy
  • Bayanhongor
  • Bulgan
  • Darhan-Uul
  • Dornod
  • Dornogovĭ
  • Dundgovĭ
  • Govĭ-Altay
  • Govĭsümber
  • Hentiy
  • Hovd
  • Hövsgöl
  • Ömnögovĭ
  • Orhon
  • Övörhangay
  • Selenge
  • Sühbaatar
  • Töv
  • Ulaanbaatar (municipality)
  • Uvs
  • Zavhan

Geography - Contents

The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous.
The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous.
The Mongolian heartland consists of relatively flat steppes. The southern portion of the country is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous. Uvs Nuur Lake, shared with Tuva Republic in the Russian Federation, is a natural World Heritage Site.Most of the country is hot in the summer and extremely cold in the winter, with January averages dropping as low as -30°C (-22°F). The country is also subject to occasional harsh climactic conditions known as zud or dzud.Ulaanbaatar has the coldest average temperature of any national capital in the world.

Economy - Contents

Mongolia's economy is centered on agriculture and mining. Mongolia's main mining products are petroleum, coal and copper, with smaller industries in molybdenum, tungsten, and phosphate mining. Following decades of state-run enterprise, the economy has undergone an often-painful transition to capitalism; many industrial facilities were closed down with the end of the Soviet Union, which supported the largely loss-making factories. There are currently over 30,000 independent businesses in Mongolia, chiefly centered around the capital city. The majority of the population outside the cities subsists on sustenance herding; livestock typically consists of cows, sheep, goats, horses and Bactrian camels.GDA per capita is about 2 in nominal terms, but adjusted for purchasing power this comes to around ,046. Although GDP has risen steadily since 2002, the state is still working to overcome a sizable trade deficit. A massive ( billion) foreign debt to Russia was settled by the Mongolian government in 2004 with a 0 million payment; this reduced value was accepted due to Mongolian hardship and losses of human lives during the Soviet Era. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and now exports cashmere, minerals, and food products to Russia, the United States, China, Japan, Italy, and other countries.
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