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Water (from the Old English word wæter; c.f German "Wasser", from PIE *wod-or, "water") is a tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless (it has a slight hint of blue) substance in its pure form that is essential to all known forms of life and is known also as the most universal solvent. Water is an abundant substance on Earth. It exists in many places and forms. It appears mostly in the oceans and polar ice caps, but also as clouds, rain water, rivers, freshwater aquifers, and sea ice. On the planet, water is continuously moving through the cycle involving evaporation, precipitation, and runoff to the sea.Water fit for human consumption is called potable water. This natural resource is becoming more scarce in certain places as human population in those places increases, and its availability is a major social and economic concern.

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Molecular properties
Astronomical position of Earth and impact on its water
Human uses of water
The impact of water on religion and philosophy

Molecular properties - Contents

Forms of water
Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902
Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902

Water takes many different shapes on earth: water vapor and clouds in the sky, waves and icebergs in the sea, glaciers in the mountain, aquifers in the ground, to name but a few. Through evaporation, precipitation, and runoff, water is continuously flowing from one form to another, in what is called the water cycle.Because of the importance of precipitation to agriculture, and to mankind in general, different names are given to its various forms: while rain is common in most countries, other phenomena are quite surprising when seen for the first time. Hail, snow, fog or dew are examples. When appropriately lit, water drops in the air can refract sunlight to produce rainbows.Similarly, water runoffs have played major roles in human history as rivers and irrigation brought the water needed for agriculture. Rivers and seas offered opportunity for travel and commerce. Through erosion, runoffs played a major part in shaping the environment providing river valleys and deltas which provide rich soil and level ground for the establishment of population centers.Water also infiltrates the ground and goes into aquifers. This groundwater later flows back to the surface in springs, or more spectacularly in hot springs and geysers. Groundwater is also extracted artificially in wells.Because water can contain many different substances, it can taste or smell very differently. In fact, humans and other animals have developed their senses to be able to evaluate the drinkability of water: animals generally dislike the taste of salty sea water and the putrid swamps and favor the purer water of a mountain spring or aquifer.

Water in biology and human civilization
Drinking water from a tap
Drinking water from a tap
From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life that set it apart from other substances. Water carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allows replication. It is a good solvent and has a high surface tension, and thus allows organic compounds and living things to be transported in it. Fresh water has its greatest density at 4° C, then becoming less dense as it freezes or heats up from this point. As a stable, polar molecule prevalent in the atmosphere, it plays an important atmospheric role as an absorber of infrared radiation, crucial in the atmospheric greenhouse effect without of which, the average surface temperature would be −18° Celsius. Water also has an unusually high specific heat, which plays many roles in regulating global and regional climate, such as the Gulf Stream climate, allowing life to survive. Because it absorbs strongly in the infrared, it has a very slight blue colour to it due to the removal of a small amount of red light which passes through it. The blue colour is only apparent when it is in mass quantities, such as lakes or the ocean.Water is a very good solvent, chemically similar to ammonia, and dissolves many types of substances, such as various salts and sugar, and facilitates their chemical interaction, which aids complex metabolisms.Some substances, however, do not mix well with water, including oils and other hydrophobic substances. Cell membranes, composed of lipids and proteins, take advantage of this property to carefully control interactions between their contents and external chemicals. This is facilitated somewhat by the surface tension of water.Water drops are stable due to the high surface tension of water caused by the strong intermolecular forces called cohesive forces. This can be seen when small quantities of water are put onto a nonsoluble surface such as polythene: the water stays together as drops. On extremely clean glass the water may form a thin film because the molecular forces between glass and water molecules (adhesive forces) are stronger than the cohesive forces. This property plays a key role in plant transpiration.In biological cells and organelles, water is in contact with membrane and protein surfaces that are hydrophilic, that is, those surfaces that have a strong attraction to water. Langmuir observed a strong repulsive force between hydrophilic surfaces. To dehydrate hydrophilic surfaces - to remove the strongly held layers of water of hydration - requires doing substantial work against these forces, called hydration forces. These forces are very large, but decrease rapidly over a nanometre or less. Their importance in biology has been extensively studied by Parsegian. They are particularly important when cells are dehydrated by exposure to dry atmospheres or to extracellular freezing.A simple but environmentally important and unique property of water is that its common solid form, ice, floats on the liquid. This solid phase is less dense than liquid water, due to the geometry of the strong hydrogen bonds which are formed only at lower temperatures. For almost all other substances and for all other 11 uncommon phases of water ice except ice-XI, the solid form is more dense than the liquid form. Fresh water is most dense at 4°C, and will sink by convection as it cools to that temperature, and if it becomes colder it will rise instead. This reversal will cause deep water to remain warmer than shallower freezing water, so that ice in a body of water will form first at the surface and progress downward, while the majority of the water underneath will hold a constant 4°C. This effectively insulates a lake floor from the cold.While this behaviour may seem obvious, even intuitive, it should be noted that almost all other chemicals are denser as solids than they are as liquids, and freeze from the bottom up.Life on earth has evolved with and adapted itself to the important features of water. The existence of abundant liquid, vapor and solid forms of water on Earth has been an important factor in the abundant colonization of Earth's various environments by life-forms adapted to those varying and often extreme conditions.Civilizations have historically flourished around rivers and major waterways; Mesopotamia, the so-called cradle of civilization, is situated between two major rivers. Large metropolises like London, Paris, New York, and Tokyo owe their success in part to their easy accessibility via water and the resultant expansion of trade. Islands with safe water ports, like Singapore and Hong Kong, have flourished for precisely this reason. In places such as North Africa and the Middle East, where water is scarcer, access to clean drinking water was and is a major factor in human development.A common misconception about water is that it is a powerful conductor of electricity. Any electrical properties observable in water are due to the ions of mineral salts and carbon dioxide dissolved in it. Water does self-ionize (two water molecules become one hydroxide anion and one hydronium cation), but only at a very slight, almost immeasurable level. Pure water can also be electrolized into oxygen and hydrogen gases but without any dissolved ions, this is a very slow process and thus very little current is conducted. Many bottled water companies exploit another common misconception, advertising both purity and taste, even though pure water is tasteless.

Astronomical position of Earth and impact on its water - Contents

Impact of a water droplet.
Impact of a water droplet.
The coexistence of the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of water on Earth is vital to the origin, evolution, and continued existence of life on Earth. However, if the Earth's location in the solar system were even marginally closer or further from the Sun (ie, a million miles or so), the conditions which allow the three forms to be present simultaneously would be far less likely to exist.Earth's mass allows gravity to hold an atmosphere. Water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere provides a greenhouse effect which helps maintain a relatively steady surface temperature. If Earth were less massive, a thinner atmosphere would cause temperature extremes preventing the accumulation of water except in polar ice caps (as on Mars). According to the solar nebula model of the solar system's formation, Earth's mass may be largely due to its distance from the Sun.The distance between Earth and the Sun and the combination of solar radiation received and the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere ensures that its surface is neither too cold nor too hot for liquid water. If Earth were more distant, most water would be frozen. If Earth were nearer to the Sun, its higher surface temperature would limit the formation of ice caps, or cause water to exist only as vapor. In the former case, the low albedo of oceans would cause Earth to absorb more solar energy. In the second case, a runaway greenhouse effect and inhospitable conditions similar to Venus would result.It has been proposed that life itself may maintain the conditions that have allowed its continued existence. The surface temperature of Earth has been relatively constant through geologic time despite varying solar flux, indicating that a dynamic process governs Earth's temperature via a combination of greenhouse gases and surface or atmospheric albedo. This proposal is known as the Gaia hypothesis.

Human uses of water - Contents

Water pressure in a sprinkler
Water pressure in a sprinkler
All known forms of life depend on water. Water is a vital part of many metabolic processes within the body. Significant quantities of water are used during the digestion of food. (Note however that some bacteria and plant seeds can enter a cryptobiotic state for an indefinite period when dehydrated, and come back to life when returned to a wet environment)About 72% of the fat free mass of the human body is made of water. To function properly the body requires between one and seven litres of water per day to avoid dehydration, the precise amount depending on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and other factors. It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people. However, for those who do not have kidney problems, it is rather difficult to drink too much water, but (especially in warm humid weather and while exercising) dangerous to drink too little. People do often drink far more water than necessary while exercising, however, putting them at risk of water intoxication, which is frequently fatal. The "fact" that a person should consume eight glasses of water per day cannot be traced back to a scientific source. [1]
A manual water pump in China.
A manual water pump in China.
The latest dietary reference intake report by the National Research Council recommended 2.7 liters of water total (including food sources) for women and 3.7 liters for men [2]. Water is lost from the body in urine and feces, through sweating, and by exhalation of water vapor in the breath.
Humans require water that does not contain too much salt or other impurities. Common impurities include chemicals and/or harmful bacteria, such as crypto sporidium. Some solutes are acceptable and even desirable for perceived taste enhancement and to provide needed electrolytes.

Water as a precious resource
See water resources for information about fresh water supplies.
People queue to gather water during the Siege of Sarajevo. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
People queue to gather water during the Siege of Sarajevo. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
Because of the growth of world population and other factors, the availability of drinking water per capita is shrinking. The issue of water shortage can be solved through more production, better distribution and less waste of it. For this reason, water is a strategic resource for many countries. There is a long history of conflict over water, including efforts to gain access to water, the use of water in wars started for other reasons, and tensions over shortages and control.[ A Chronology of Water-Related Conflicts] Experts predict more trouble ahead because of the world's growing population, increasing contamination through pollution, and global warming.
A Mountain Stream
A Mountain Stream
UNESCO's World Water Development Report (WWDR, 2003) from its World Water Assessment Program indicates that, in the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world's inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. More than 2.2 million people died in 2000 from diseases related to the consumption of contaminated water or drought. In 2004, the UK charity WaterAid reported that a child dies every 15 seconds due to easily preventable water-related diseases.Some have predicted that clean water will become the "next oil", making Canada, with this resource in abundance, possibly the richest country in the world.In 2005, Gasoline in the US topped record-breaking prices over a gallon causing great concerns for global economic instability; in comparison, many consumers are willing to spend on average .50 for less than a quart, (over /gallon) for bottled drinking water without a second thought.Fresh water, now more precious than ever in our history for its extensive use in agriculture, high-tech manufacturing, and energy production, is increasingly receiving attention as a resource requiring better management and sustainable use.

Regulating water distribution
Drinking water is often collected at springs or extracted from artificial borings in the ground, or wells. Building more wells in adequate places is thus a possible way to produce more water assuming the aquifers can supply an adequate flow. Other water sources are the rainwater and river or lake water. This surface water, however, must be purified for human consumption. This may involve removal of undissolved substances, dissolved substances and harmful microbes. Popular methods are filtering with sand which only removes undissolved material while chlorination and boiling kill harmful microbes. Distillation does all three functions. More advanced techniques exist, such as reverse osmosis. Desalination of abundant ocean or seawater is a more expensive solution used in coastal arid climates.The distribution of drinking water is done through municipal water systems or as bottled water. Governments in many countries have programs to distribute water to the needy at no charge. Others argue that the market mechanism and free enterprise are best to manage this rare resource, and to finance the boring of wells or the construction of dams and reservoirs.Reducing waste, that is using drinking water only for human consumption, is another option. In some cities, such as Hong Kong, sea water is extensively used for flushing toilets citywide in order to conserve fresh water resources. Polluting water may be the biggest single misuse of water; to the extent that a pollutant limits other uses of the water, it becomes a waste of the resource, regardless of benefits to the pollutor. Pharmaceuticals consumed by humans often end up in the waterways and can have detrimental effects on aquatic life if they bioaccumulate and if they are not biodegradable.

The impact of water on religion and philosophy - Contents

The proverbial glass half empty/full.
The proverbial glass half empty/full.
Water is considered a purifier in most religions, including Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Shinto. For instance, baptism in Christian churches is done with water. In addition, a ritual bath in pure water is performed for the dead in many religions including Judaism and Islam. In Islam, the five daily prayers can only be done after completing washing the body with clean water ( wudu). In Shinto, water is used in almost all rituals to cleanse a person or an area. Water is mentioned in the Bible 442 times in the New International Version and 363 times in the King James Version. 2 Peter 3:5(b) states: ..."the earth was formed out of water and by water." (NIV)Water is often believed to have spiritual powers. In Celtic mythology, Sulis is the local goddess of thermal springs; in Hinduism, the Ganga is also personified as a goddess. Alternatively, gods can be patrons of particular springs, river or lakes: for example in Greek and Roman mythology, Peneus was a river god, one of the three thousand Oceanids.The Greek philosopher Empedocles held that water is one of the four classical elements along with fire, earth and air, and was regarded as the ylem, or basic stuff of the universe. Water was considered cold and moist. In the theory of the four bodily humours, water was associated with phlegm. Water was also one of the Five Elements in traditional Chinese philosophy, along with earth, fire, wood, and metal.
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