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Coyote (Canis latrans)
Coyote (Canis latrans)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
G. Fischer de Waldheim, 1817
  • Alopex
  • Atelocynus
  • Canis
  • Cerdocyon
  • Chrysocyon
  • Cuon
  • Dusicyon
  • Fennecus
  • Lycalopex
  • Lycaon
  • Nyctereutes
  • Otocyon
  • Pseudalopex
  • Speothos
  • Urocyon
  • Vulpes
Canidae is the family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals commonly known as canines. It includes dogs, wolves, foxes, coyotes, and jackals. These animals are all digitigrades, meaning they walk on their toes.

A classification of dogs - Contents

Note that the subdivision of Canidae into "foxes" and "true dogs" may not be in accordance with the actual relations, and that the taxonomic classification of several canines is disputed. Recent DNA analysis has shown, however, that Canini and Vulpini are valid clades, with the exception of two genera: Nyctereutes and Otocyon. These are canid " outgroups" and are not closely related to vulpines nor canines. Speothos and Chrysocyon are primitive members of Canini, but might be placed in their own clade. Cuon may in fact be part of Canis and there is evidence that Alopex and Fennecus are not valid clades, but are both part of Vulpes. The Domestic Dog is listed by some authorities as Canis familiaris and others (including the Smithsonian Institution and the American Society of Mammalogists) as a subspecies of the Wolf (i.e., Canis lupus familiaris); the Red Wolf may or may not be a full species; and the Dingo, which is variously classified as Canis lupus dingo, Canis dingo and Canis familiaris dingo.
  • True dogs - Tribe Canini
    • Genus Canis
      • Coyote, Canis latrans
      • Wolf, Canis lupus
        • Domestic Dog, Canis lupus familiaris
        • Dingo, Canis lupus dingo
        • many other proposed subspecies
      • Red Wolf, Canis rufus
      • Ethiopian Wolf, Canis simensis (also called Abyssinian Wolf, Simien Fox and Simien Jackal)
      • Jackal
        • Golden Jackal, Canis aureus
        • Side-striped Jackal, Canis adustus
        • Black-backed jackal, Canis mesomelas
    • Genus Lycaon
    • Genus Cuon
      • Dhole, Cuon alpinus
    • Genus Nyctereutes
      • Raccoon Dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides
    • Genus Atelocynus
      • Short-eared Dog, Atelocynus microtis
    • Genus Speothos
      • Bush Dog, Speothos venaticus
    • Genus Chrysocyon
      • Maned Wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus
    • (Genus Dusicyon extinct)
      • ( Falkland Island Fox, Dusicyon australis extinct)
    • Genus Pseudalopex
      • Culpeo, Pseudalopex culpaeus
      • Darwin's Fox, Pseudalopex fulvipes
      • Argentine Grey Fox, Pseudalopex griseus
      • Pampas Fox, Pseudalopex gymnocercus
      • Sechura Fox, Pseudalopex sechurae
      • Hoary Fox, Pseudalopex vetulus
    • Genus Cerdocyon
      • Crab-eating Fox, Cerdocyon thous
  • Foxes - Tribe Vulpini
    • Genus Vulpes
      • Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes
      • Swift Fox, Vulpes velox
      • Kit Fox, Vulpes macrotis
      • Corsac Fox, Vulpes corsac
      • Cape Fox, Vulpes chama
      • Pale Fox, Vulpes pallida
      • Bengal Fox, Vulpes bengalensis
      • Tibetan Fox, Vulpes ferrilata
      • Blanford's Fox, Vulpes cana
      • Rueppel's Fox, Vulpes rueppelli
      • Steppe Fox, Vulpes corsac
      • Fennec, Fennecus zerda
    • Genus Alopex
      • Arctic Fox, Alopex lagopus
    • Genus Otocyon
    • Genus Urocyon
      • Gray Fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus
      • Island Fox, Urocyon littoralis

Dentition - Contents

Canines have 42 teeth - their dental formula is:
The deciduous or baby teeth formula is 3 1 3, where molars are completely absent.

Canine copulation - Contents

When copulating, a male canine initially mounts the female from behind, as with most tetrapods. The male dog has a bulbus glandis at the base of the penis, a spherical erectile tissue which traps the penis inside the female's vagina during copulation as it becomes engorged with blood. [1] Once the penis is locked into the vagina by the bulbus glandis, the male lifts a leg and swings it over the female's back while turning around. The two stand with their hind ends touching and the penis locked inside the vagina while ejaculation occurs, decreasing leakage of semen from the vagina. Then the bulbus glandis disengorges, allowing the mates to separate. Virgin dogs can become quite distressed at finding themselves unable to separate during their first copulation.Note that the term " doggy style" is a misnomer. The canine mounting behaviour with pelvic thrust is a dominance gesture, and does not depend on the sex of the animals involved - it should not be confused with canine copulation.
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