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Federal Republic of Nigeria
Flag of Nigeria Coat of arms of Nigeria
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress
Anthem: Arise O Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey
Location of Nigeria
Capital Abuja
9°10′ N 7°10′ E
Largest city Lagos
Official language(s) English
Federal republic
Oluṣẹgun Ọbasanjọ
Atiku Abubakar
From the United Kingdom
October 1, 1960
• Total

• Water (%)

923,768 km² ( 32nd)
{{{areami²}}} mi²

• 2005 est.
• [[As of |]] census

• Density

128,771,988 ( 9th)

139/km² ( 53rd)
• Total
• Per capita
2004 estimate
9,750,000,000 ( 46th)
,120 ( 171st)
HDI ( 2003) 0.453 ( 158th) – low
Currency Naira (₦) ( NGN)
Time zone
• Summer ( DST)
( UTC+1)
( UTC+2)
Internet TLD .ng
Calling code +234
The Federal Republic of Nigeria is a country in West Africa. The most populous country in Africa, Nigeria re-achieved democracy in 1999 after a sixteen-year-long interruption by a corrupt and brutal series of military dictators and counter-coups. Nigeria borders the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, Niger in the north and the Gulf of Guinea in the south. Major cities include the capital Abuja, the former capital Lagos, Ibadan, Oṣogbo, Calabar, Warri, Port Harcourt, Enụgụ, Kano, Kaduna, Onitsha, Jos, Ilọrin, Maiduguri, Bauchi, Sokoto and Benin City.The country's name first appeared in print in The Times in 1897 and was suggested by the paper's colonial editor Flora Shaw who would later marry Frederick Lugard, the first Govenor General of the Amalgamated Nigeria. The name comes from a combination of the words " Niger" (the country's longest river) and "Area". Its adjective form is Nigerian , which should not be confused with Nigerien for Niger.

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Public Health Issues

History - Contents

Nigeria has had an eventful and unique history. More than 2,000 years ago, the Nok people were using iron and producing terracotta sculptures. In Kano and Katsina, recorded history dates back to around AD 1000. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem-Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa. The Yoruba kingdoms of Ifẹ and Ọyọ were founded about AD 1400. The Ifẹ produced the terra cotta and bronze heads the Ọyọ extended as far as modern Togo. The Kingdom of Benin developed an efficient army and renowned artisans. The southeast produced the Onitsha, Nri, and Arochukwu kingdoms. The Nri kingdom reigned before slavery with Divine priests and powerful Ezenri. A prominent town they controlled was Igbo Ukwu which was home to Bronze figures and was a burial site for Kings. Niger Delta kingdoms also flourished, like the Calabar, Opobo, Bonny, Brass, Elem kalabari and others which were conntrolled by the Ijaw, Efik, Igbo, and Ibibio.Beginning in the 17th century Europeans established ports for slave trafficking. In the early 19th century the Fulani leader Usman dan Fodio united most areas in the north under the control of an Islamic Fulani Empire centered in Sokoto.

Politics - Contents

Nigeria is a Federal Republic, comprising 36 states plus the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja.

States - Contents

Nigeria is divided into 36 states and one territory. Each state has a unicameral House of Assembly and an elected Governor, who appoints an Executive Council.
  • Abia
  • Adamawa
  • Akwa Ibom
  • Anambra
  • Bauchi
  • Bayelsa
  • Benue
  • Borno
  • Cross River
  • Delta
  • Ebonyi
  • Ẹdo
  • Ekiti
  • Enụgụ
  • Gombe
  • Imo
  • Jigawa
  • Kaduna
  • Kano
  • Katsina
  • Kebbi
  • Kogi
  • Kwara
  • Lagos
  • Nassarawa
  • Niger
  • Ogun
  • Ondo
  • Ọṣun
  • Ọyọ
  • Plateau
  • Rivers
  • Sokoto
  • Taraba
  • Yobe
  • Zamfara
  • Abuja Federal Capital Territory

Geography - Contents

Map of Nigeria (source: CIA's The World Factbook)
Map of Nigeria (source: CIA's The World Factbook)
Nigeria is located on the Gulf of Guinea. Its major cities are located in southern lowlands. The central part of the country contains hills and plateaus. The north consists of arid plains that border the Sahara. Its neighbouring countries are Benin, Niger, Chad and Cameroon. ...Forest and woodland occurs chiefly in the southern third of the country, which is affected by seasonal rains from the Atlantic which occur from June to September. As one progresses northward the country becomes drier and the vegetation more savanna in type. The northern third of the country forms part of the semi-arid sahel region on the fringes of the Sahara desert.Nigeria is divided roughly in three by the rivers Niger and Benue, which flow through the country from north-east and north-west to meet roughly in the centre of the country near the new capital city of Abuja. From here the united rivers flow south to the sea at the Niger Delta. Its highest point is Chappal Waddi (2,419 m / 7,936 ft), on the Cameroonian border.

Economy - Contents

A market in Lagos
A market in Lagos
Mineral resources include petroleum, coal and tin. Agricultural products include groundnuts, palm oil, cocoa, citrus fruits, maize, millet, cassava, yams and sugar cane.Right now the Nigerian economy is undergoing a massive reform. The Government is trying to improve the delivery of social services including health and education. The public sector is being reformed. Procurement practises are being tightened up. The authorities are seeking to tackle corruption. Most moribund public utilities have either been privatized or in the last lap of being privatized.Nigeria accumulated a significant foreign debt. However many of the projects financed by these debts were inefficient, bedevilled by corruption or failed to live up to expectations. Nigeria defaulted on its debt and over the years, arrears and penalty interest accumulated and increased the size of the debt.After a long campaign by the Nigeria authorities, in October 2005 Nigeria and its Paris Club creditors reached an agreement that will see Nigeria's debt reduced by approximately 60%. Nigeria will use part of its oil windfall to pay the residual 40%. This deal will free up at least billion annually for poverty reduction programmes.Nigeria is infamous for being the source of scam e-mails sent to people all over the world requesting advanced payments in order to help the sender relocate funds ( 419 scam). Those who pay these fees never get any money themselves. A new ( 2006) law is currently being discussed that would punish such offenses with up to three years in jail.

Public Health Issues - Contents

One issue which has been complicated by political chaos has been the effort of the World Health Organization to eradicate polio worldwide. Northern Nigeria was the location of half of all documented polio cases in 2003, but Muslim clerics have repeatedly inveighed against the vaccine as an effort by Westerners to sterilise young Nigerian Muslim girls. The national vaccination program was suspended in several states in August of 2003, and the disease nearly quintupled in frequency (119 cases in first quarter 2004, vs. 24 in 2003). By May 2004, polio was reported to have spread from there to several other African nations which had previously been declared polio-free. On May 18, the state of Kano agreed to resume vaccination programmes using vaccines produced in Indonesia, not the US. [1]

Other risks
The prevalence rate for HIV/AIDS in the adult population was estimated at 5.4% in 2003. [1]
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