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République du Sénégal
( In Detail) ( In Detail)
National motto: Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi
( French: One People, One Goal, One Faith)
image:LocationSenegal.png
Official languages French
Capital Dakar
President Abdoulaye Wade
Prime Minister Macky Sall
Area
- Total
- % water
Ranked 85th
196,190 km²
2.1%
Population
- Total ( 2005)
- Density
Ranked 73rd
11,126,832
56.7/km²
"' GDP PPP"' .56 Billion (115)
"' GDP per capita"' ,800 (188)
HDI ( 2003) 0.458 ( 157th) – low
Independence
- Date
From France
June 20, 1960
Currency CFA Franc
Time zone UTC 0
National anthem Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons
Internet TLD .sn
Calling Code 221
The Republic of Senegal is a country south of the Senegal River in West Africa. Senegal is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Mauritania to the north, Mali to the east, and Guinea and Guinea-Bissau to the south. The Gambia forms an enclave within Senegal, following the Gambia River more than 300 km inland. The Cape Verde islands lie some 560 km off the Senegalese coast.

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Contents

History
Geography
Politics
Economy
Demographics
Subdivisions



History - Contents

Archaeological findings throughout the area indicate that Senegal was inhabited in prehistoric times. Islam, the dominant religion in Senegal, first came to the region in the 11th century. Today, 95% of Senegalese are Muslims. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the area came under the influence of the Mandingo empires to the east; the Jolof Empire of Senegal also was founded during this time. Various European powers came to the area from the 15th century onward, until France ended up in possession of what had become an important slave trade departure point. Independence from France was gained in 1960, on April the 4th.In January 1959, Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent on June 20, 1960, as a result of the independence and the transfer of power agreement signed with France on April 4, 1960. Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on August 20. Senegal and Sudan (renamed the Republic of Mali) proclaimed independence. Léopold Senghor was elected Senegal's first president in August 1960.After the breakup of the Mali Federation, President Senghor and Prime Minister Mamadou Dia governed together under a parliamentary system. In December 1962, their political rivalry led to an attempted coup by Prime Minister Dia. Although this was put down without bloodshed, Dia was arrested and imprisoned, and Senegal adopted a new constitution that consolidated the President's power. In 1980, President Senghor decided to retire from politics, and he handed power over in 1981 to his handpicked successor, Abdou Diouf.Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia on February 1, 1982. However, the union was dissolved in 1989. Despite peace talks, a southern separatist group in the Casamance region has clashed sporadically with government forces since 1982. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.Abdou Diouf was president between 1981 and 2000. He encouraged broader political participation, reduced government involvement in the economy, and widened Senegal's diplomatic engagements, particularly with other developing nations. Domestic politics on occasion spilled over into street violence, border tensions, and a violent separatist movement in the southern region of the Casamance. Nevertheless, Senegal's commitment to democracy and human rights strengthened. Diouf served four terms as President. In the presidential election of 2000, he was defeated, in a free and fair election, by opposition leader Abdoulaye Wade. Senegal experienced its second peaceful transition of power, and its first from one political party to another.On December 30, 2004 President Abdoulaye Wade announced that he would sign a peace treaty with the separatist group in the Casamance region.


Geography - Contents

Map of Senegal
Map of Senegal
Senegal is located on the west of the African continent. The Senegalese landscape consists mainly of the rolling sandy plains of the western Sahel which rise to foothills in the southeast. Here is also found Senegal's highest point, an otherwise unnamed feature near Nepen Diakha at 581 m. The northern border is formed by the Senegal River, other rivers include the Gambia and Casamance Rivers. The capital Dakar lies on the Cap-Vert peninsula, the westernmost point of continental Africa.
Huts in the countryside
Huts in the countryside
The local climate is tropical with well-defined dry and humid seasons that result from northeast winter winds and southwest summer winds. Dakar's annual rainfall of about 24 in (600 mm) occurs between June and October when maximum temperatures average 27°C; December to February minimum temperatures are about 17°C. Interior temperatures are higher than along the coast, and rainfall increases substantially farther south, exceeding 1500 mm annually in some areas.


Politics - Contents

Senegal is a republic with a powerful presidency; the president is elected every seven years, amended in 2001 to every five years, by universal adult suffrage. The current president is Abdoulaye Wade.Senegal also has 65 political parties which contribute to development of the country through working towards a successful transition to democracy in the country, and even among other developing countries on the African continent. The unicameral National Assembly has 120 members elected separately from the president. A single house legislature, and a fair and independent judiciary also exist in Senegal. The nation's highest courts that deal with business issues are the constitutional council, and the court of justice, members of which are named by the president.Senegal has a reputation for transparency in government operations. The level of economic corruption that has damaged the development of the economies in other parts of the world is very low. Today Senegal has a democratic political culture, being part of one of the most successful democratic transitions in Africa. Senegal recognizes and respects all cultures, religions and traditions.


Economy - Contents

Street vendors
Street vendors
In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform programme with the support of the international donor community. This reform began with a 50 % devaluation of Senegal's currency, the CFA franc, which was linked at a fixed rate to the former French franc and now to the euro. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1 % in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform programme, with real growth in GDP averaging 5 % annually during 1995- 2001. Annual inflation had been pushed down to less than 1 %, but rose to an estimated 3.3 % in 2001. Investment rose steadily from 13.8 % of GDP in 1993 to 16.5 % in 1997.As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff. Senegal also realised full Internet connectivity in 1996, creating a miniboom in information technology-based services. Private activity now accounts for 82% of GDP. On the negative side, Senegal faces deep-seated urban problems of chronic unemployment, trade union militancy, juvenile delinquency, and drug addiction.


Demographics - Contents

Senegal's population 1961-2003
Senegal's population 1961-2003
Main article: Demographics of Senegal
Senegal has a population of some 10 million, about 70% of whom live in rural areas. Density in these areas varies from about 77 km² in the west-central region to 2 km² in the arid eastern section.

Ethnicity
Senegal has a wide variety of ethnic groups and, accordingly, multiple languages are spoken. French is the official language but is used regularly only by the literate minority. The Wolof are the largest single group in Senegal at 43%, other ethnic groups include the Fula (24%), the Serer (15%), the Jola (4%), Mandinka (3%), beside numerous smaller communities. About 50,000 Europeans (mostly French) and Lebanese reside in Senegal, mainly in the cities. Among those cities as well, there are also some Chinese and Vietnamese minorities.

Religion
Senegal recognizes and respects all cultures, religions, and traditions. Islam is the predominant religion, practiced by approximately 94% of the country's population; the Christian community, at 4% of the population, includes Roman Catholics and diverse Protestant denominations.

Islam

Grande Mosquee de Ouakam, Senegal
Grande Mosquee de Ouakam, Senegal
Islamic communities are generally organized around one of several Islamic Sufi orders or brotherhoods, headed by a khalif (xaliifa in Wolof, from Arabic khalīfa), who is usually a direct descendant of the group’s founder. The two largest and most prominent Sufi orders in Senegal are the Tijaniyya, whose largest sub-groups are based in the cities of Tivaouane and Kaolack, and the Murīdiyya (Murid), based in the city of Touba. The Halpulaar, a widespread ethnic group found along the Sahel from Chad to Senegal, representing 20% of the Senegalese population, were the first to be converted to Islam. The Halpulaar, composed of various Fula people groups, named Peuls and Toucouleurs in Senegal. Many of the Toucouleurs, or sedentary Halpulaar of the Senegal River Valley in the north, converted to Islam around a millennium ago and later contributed to Islam's propagation throughout Senegal. Most communities south of the Senegal River Valley, however, were not thoroughly Islamized until the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During the mid-nineteenth century, Islam became a banner of resistance against the traditional aristocracies and French colonialism, and Tijānī leaders Al-Hajj Umar Tall and Màbba Jaxu Ba established short-lived but influential Islamic states but were both killed in battle and their empires than annexed by the French.The spread of formal Quranic school (called daara in Wolof) during the colonial period increased largely through the effort of the Tijaniyya. In Murid communities, which place more emphasis on the work ethic than on literary Quranic studies, the term daara often applies to work groups devoted to working for a religious leader. Other Islamic groups include the much older Qādiriyya order and the Senegalese Laayeen order, which is prominent among the coastal Lebu. Today, most Senegalese children study at daaras for several years, memorizing as much of the Qur'an as they can. Some of them continue their religious studies at informal Arabic schools (majlis) or at the growing number of private Arabic schools and publicly funded Franco-Arabic schools.

Christianity

Small Roman Catholic communities are mainly found in coastal Serer, Diola and Balant populations, and in Oriental Senegal among the Bassari and Coniagui. In Dakar, Catholic and Protestant rites are also practiced by a portion of the Lebanese, Capeverdian, European, and American immigrant population, and among certain Africans of other countries. Although Islam is Senegal's majority religion, Senegal's first president, Léopold Sédar Senghor, was a Catholic Serer.


Subdivisions - Contents

Sine Saloum Mangrove in Mar Lodj, Senegal
Sine Saloum Mangrove in Mar Lodj, Senegal
The Gambia River winds through the Niokolokoba National Park, Senegal
The Gambia River winds through the Niokolokoba National Park, Senegal
Senegal is divided into eleven administrative regions:
  • Dakar
  • Diourbel
  • Fatick
  • Kaolack
  • Kolda
  • Louga
  • Matam
  • Saint-Louis
  • Tambacounda
  • Thiès
  • Ziguinchor
Local administrators are all appointed by and responsible to the President. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. However, the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. Despite peace talks, a separatist group in the southern Casamance region has sporadically clashed with government forces since 1982. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.
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